Tuesday, July 17, 2012


1. Definition of cultureCulture is a way of life that developed and owned jointly by a group of people and passed down from generation to generation. Culture is made up of many complex elements, including religious and political systems, customs, languages, tools, clothing, buildings, and artwork. Language, as well as culture, an indispensable part of human beings, so many people tend to think of a genetically inherited. When someone tried to communicate with people who berbada culture and adjust their differences, proving that culture is learned.
Culture is a holistic lifestyle. culture is complex, abstract, and spacious. Many aspects of the communicative behaviors imposed their culture. The elements of socio-cultural spread and cover a lot of human social activities.
Some of the reasons why people experience difficulties when communicating with people from other cultures is seen in the definition of culture: Culture is a complex device values ​​are polarized by an image containing a view on its own merits. "The image of the force" that takes different forms in various cultures such as "rugged individualism" in America, "the individual harmony with nature" d Japan and the "collective compliance" in China. Brsifat cultural image of the force to equip its members with guidance on appropriate behavior and set a world of meaning and logical values ​​that can be borrowed its members the most humble to gain a sense of dignity and coherence with their lives.
Thus, budayalah which provides a framework for a coherent organizing one's activities and enable it to predict the behavior of others.
2. Definition of CultureCulture is closely related to the public. Melville J. Herskovits and Bronislaw Malinowski argued that anything contained in this society is determined by the culture which is owned by the community itself. The term for it is the opinion-Cultural determinism.
Herskovits saw culture as something handed down from one generation to another, who then called the superorganic. According to Andreas Eppink, cultures containing whole notion of social values, social norms, knowledge and overall social structures, religious, etc., plus all the intellectual and artistic statements that characterize a society.
According to Edward Burnett Tylor, culture is a complex whole, in which are knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, customs, and other capabilities acquired one as a member of the community.
According Selo Soemardjan and Soelaiman Soemardi, culture is the means of work, taste, and the copyright community.
Of the various definitions, can be obtained an understanding of culture is something that will affect the level of knowledge and cover the system of ideas or ideas contained in the human mind, so in everyday life, the culture is abstract. While the embodiment of cultural objects that are created by humans as cultural beings, and the behavior of objects that are tangible, such as patterns of behavior, language, equipment life, social organization, religion, art, etc., which all of which is intended to assist humans in carrying out their social life.
3. The perspective of culture3.1 Culture as civilizationToday, most people understand the idea of ​​"culture" that developed in Europe in the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century. The notion of "culture" reflects an imbalance between European powers and the power of dijajahnya areas. They consider 'culture' as the "civilizations" as the opposite of "natural". According to this way of thinking, one culture with another culture can be compared; one culture is definitely higher than other cultures.
In practice, the word culture refers to the objects and activities of the "elite" such as wearing clothes that are classy, ​​fine art, or listening to classical music, while the cultured word used to describe people who know, and take part, from activities in over. For example, if someone berpendendapat that classical music is music that "classy", elite, and artistic taste, while traditional music considered tacky music and outdated, then the presumption arises that he is a person who has been "cultured".
People who use the word "culture" in this way do not believe there are other cultures that exist, they believe that there is only one culture and the benchmark norms and values ​​around the world. According to this view, someone who has a different habit with those who are "cultured" referred to as being "not cultured", not as a person "of another culture." People who are "not cultured" is said to be "natural," and the Observers often retain elements of high culture (high culture) to suppress the thought of "natural man" (human nature)
Since the 18th century, some social critics have accepted the existence of differences between cultured and cultured, but the comparison is-cultured and cultured, can not suppress interpretation and the interpretation of experience as a repair that damage and the development of "unnatural" that obscure and distort the nature of the humans. In this case, traditional music (which was created by the working class) is considered to express "the natural way of life" (natural way of life), and classical music as a setback and decline.
Currently mostly social scientists refuse to compare between culture and nature and monadic concept ever applies. They assume that the culture which had been considered "not elite" and "cultural elite" are the same - each community has a culture that can not be compared. Social observers distinguish some cultures as popular culture (popular culture) or pop culture, which means the item or activity that produced and consumed by many people.
3.2 Culture as a "common perspective"During the Romantic era, scholars in Germany, especially those concerned with nationalist movements - such as the nationalist struggle to unify Germany, and the nationalist struggles of ethnic minorities against the Austro-Hungarian Empire - developed a notion of culture in a "common perspective". This thinking assumes a culture with other cultures have differences and peculiarities of each. Therefore, culture can not be compared. Even so, this idea still recognizes the separation between the "cultured" with "not cultured" or cultural "primitive."
At the end of the 19th century, anthropologists have used the word culture to a broader definition. Departing from the theory of evolution, they assume that every human being to grow and evolve together, and of cultural evolution that is created.
In the 50's subculture - a group with a slightly different behavior from the parent culture - began to be the subject of research by sociologists. Also in this century, there was the popularization of the idea of ​​corporate culture - differences and talents within the context of workers' organizations or work places.
3.3 Culture as a Stabilization MechanismThe theories assume that the current (a) culture is a product of the stabilization inherent in the evolutionary pressure toward unity and awareness shared in a society, or so-called tribalism.
4. Cultural penetrationCultural penetration can occur in two ways:4.1 Penetration of peace (penetration pasifique)The entry of a culture by peaceful means. For example, the influence of Hindu culture and Islam to Indonesia. Acceptance of both kinds of cultures does not lead to conflict, but enrich the local culture. Influence of these two cultures did not result in loss of the original elements of culture.
Deployment of a peace culture will result in acculturation, assimilation, or synthesis. Acculturation is the merging of two cultures so as to form a new culture without losing the elements of indigenous culture. For example, the form of Borobudur Temple building which is a blend of indigenous cultures of Indonesia and the culture of India. Assimilation is the mixing of two cultures so as to form a new culture. While the synthesis is the mixing of two cultures that resulted in the formation of a new culture very different from the original culture.
4.2 Penetration Hardness (penetration Violante)The entry of a culture by forcing and destructive. For example, the entry of Western culture into Indonesia in colonial times, causing violent shocks that upset the balance in society. Form the western world culture, among others, is the culture of the Dutch who colonized for 350 years. Cultural heritage is still attached to the Dutch in Indonesia, among others, the government system of Indonesia.

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